The technology, used for the purpose of accelerating and facilitating educational processes with certain objectives, is called as Educational Technology. In educational technology, humans and machines both have their respective roles and work as complements to each other in the process of education. Man uses his intellect and experiences along with the machines, and he organizes the teaching-learning process by using his arts. The educational technology is the science of strategies and techniques which leads to the educational goals. By using it, all inputs are organized in such a way that students learn themselves as per their need, ability and interest.
1. Educational technology is the application of scientific knowledge related to learning and conditions of learning to improve the effectiveness of teaching and training- G.O.M. Leith
2. Educational technology is concerned with providing appropriately designed learning situations which holding in view the objectives of teaching/ training brings to bear the best means of instruction- Richmond
3. Educational technology can be understood as the development of a set of systematic techniques and accompanying practical knowledge of designing, operating anf testing schools of educational system- Robert M. Gagne
4. Educational technology is the application of laws and recent discoveries of science and technology to the process of education- S.S. Kulkarni
5. Educational technology can be conceived as a science of techniques and methods by which educational goals could be realized- S.K. Mitra
Basically all the strategies and techniques used by the teacher in order to enhance the learning speed of students in the class is educational technology.
Educational technology is the mechanization of educational process which means to advance the knowledge of humans. This is applicable to all the three stages of human knowledge:
1. Preservation of knowledge: In recent time, knowledge given by the teacher was preserved orally or in the form of manuscripts. With the advancement of technology in modern time, it is preserved in the form of printed books, tape recorders, CDs, films and digitals.
2. Transmission of knowledge: With the help of machines, knowledge given by the teacher can be transmitted to a large number of students through radio, TV, loudspeakers, films, projectors, internet, etc. Through this technology, students can remove their doubts by listening or reading any programme according to their interest, ability an d convenience.
3. Advancement of knowledge: When knowledge is transmitted to a large number of learners through these devices, the learners apply this knowledge to their life situations and many new problems of life may arise. When any of the learners take initiative to find out the solution of these problems, the knowledge advances automatically. People of new skills and intelligence are giving new dimensions of knowledge by using their creative potentials.
Following are the objectives of educational technology
1.Determination of objectives: The objectives are although formed by educationlists, yet objectives in behavioural terms are determined first. Then they are evaluated with the help of educational technology.
2.Identification and Categorization of students: Similar type of strategies is not useful for all types of students. Educational technology helps us to identify students and learning levels by testing their entering behavior and to arrange the subject-matter accordingly.
3. Effective presentation of the content: After testing the entering behavior of students, the content of subject is now presented to them as per their interests, abilities and needs. The presentation may be logical or psychological, depends on the situation. The teacher present the subject’s content with the help of various communication strategies and devices.
4. To bring novelty in teaching strategies: Using of same strategy throughout the lesson creates boredom in students. Teacher should change the strategies as per need frequently. Evaluation technology helps the teacher in bringing about change and novelty in them.
5. To modify teacher’s behavior: Teacher remains alert to the ongoing effect of his behavior on Students, if he knows educational technology. With the help of novel experiments and drills, he modifies his behavior to make teaching effective.
6. To make teaching-learning process effective: The teacher always want to make the teaching- Learning process effective. For this he not only changes his process on and off but also he uses new devices or equipments in his teaching strategies.
7.Evaluation of teaching: At the end of teaching, teacher evaluate whatever he taught in the class room. This process is helpful for the teacher to know at what extent the eucational objectives have been achieved. The teacher uses measuring instruments or he constructs them and then matches the results with the objectives already formulated before teaching.
8.To guide other teachers: The quality of output produced after teaching helps the teacher to know to what extent he is successful in his efforts. If the results are good, the model is suggested to other
teachers for improving learning.
Ther are four main steps as follow:
1. In the first step a functional analysis of the teaching-learning process is done to identify the various components which will operate from the stage of input to that of output.
2. In second step observation is done on the effect of manipulating various components.
3. The third step is to observe the effect of manipulating various components and their functions in the fields.
4. In the last step, translation of all these research findings into some kind of guidelines for the practitioner is done.
Characteristics of Educational Technology
Following are the main features of educational technology:
1. In educational technology, the inputs are integrated to output through the application of science and technology.
2. In this learning theories are integrated to teaching practice and principles to remove or minimize the limitations of educational psychology.
3. It is the process of continuous development of new strategies and techniques through experiments to achieve a result oriented learning. Thus, it is a constant process of research which is beneficial to all the future teacher of society.
4. In this we first define the objectives in behavioural terms. Then, suitable teaching-learning situations are created to realize those objectives.
5. The teacher is responsible to control the class room environment in his own favour.
6. It enables the teacher to construct relevant tests for the evaluation of behavioural changes of learners.
7. It emphasizes on the systematic approach of teaching where the problem is analysed first, then suitable strategies are selected for each unit of problems.
8. It consists of three components:
(i) Input- school building, teaching materials, furniture
(ii)Process- strategies and techniques of teaching
(iii) Output- desired changes in behavior of learners
Use of Educational Technology for Teachers
Traditionally, the teachers are the sole interpreter of knowledge to learners and the text books are the sole resources. In recent time, the educational technology equipped the teachers with technical mindset to conduct various activities related to teaching:
1. It has provided a scientific base to educational theory and practice. It also provides a scientific and systematic approach to teachers, to conduct action research in classroom conditions to remove the classroom problems, related to class environment, content and curriculum.
2. It enables the teacher to mechanize and modernize the process of teaching and learning. In this, learners do their study at their own speed with the help of programme instructions.
3. The instructional programmes are made for remedial, enrichment or drill purpose and the learners get the training of self-instruction. The teachers are relieved of the burden of routine repetition for exercise and revision purpose.
4. The teachers are equipped with audio-visual aids to make the teaching-learning process effective.
5. Teacher first analyses and organizes the content, arranges them in logical and psychological order in their lesson plans, and then enteres in the classroom with full confidence.
6. It is beneficial for professional growth of teachers. It improves their teaching competence, modifies their teaching behavior and style, inculcates scientific outlook, attitude and approach. Educational technology also helps them to transfer knowledge to the learners.
7. It helps the teacher to know , to what extent the educational objectives have been achieved.
Dr. K.S. Dahiya ,Dean-Faculty of Education & Physical Education